The Triad approach brings benefits to site characterization and remediation work throughout the hazardous waste site cleanup process, and for all forms of existing cleanup programs.
The Triad approach can bring benefits to hazardous waste site characterization and remediation work at every point in the hazardous waste site cleanup process, and for every form of cleanup program that currently exists.
The applicability of the Triad approach increases as more information is collected at a site and the evaluation of the contamination present becomes more focused. Early in the site characterization process, limited data are collected to begin developing a clear understanding of contaminant concentrations, locations, and sources. As the CSM matures, a dynamic work strategy based on adaptive sampling, real-time measurements, field analytical techniques, and decision-making in the field becomes increasingly attractive. This is because the selection of appropriate real-time measurement systems/field analytics is simplified as contaminants of concern are identified and their action levels or cleanup goals specified, and because data needs and decision-making consequences tend to increase with each step of the process, offering greater potential for realizing the cost and schedule efficiencies inherent in the Triad.
The following sections discuss the applicability of the Triad at each generic step of the hazardous waste site cleanup process: Site assessments, remedial investigations and feasibility studies, remedial design and implementation, operation and maintenance, and site closure. While the terminology employed is CERCLA-derived, the concepts are equally applicable to RCRA corrective actions, voluntary cleanups, and property transactions. The Triad approach is particularly effective at compressing the cleanup process where regulations and the site-specific situation allow.